At their second Summit in Sochi on August 18, 2010, Russia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan agreed to reinforce their cooperation. Russia wishes to re-establish its presence in Afghanistan and in Central Asia, with President Medvedev harking back to the Soviet era. Russia also wishes to explore transit options via Afghanistan and Tajikistan to Pakistan. China’s growing influence in the region, and security issues pertaining to Afghanistan/Pakistan – explains the Russian outreach. The United States has supported the Russian initiative due to its own compulsions and the China factor. India needs to pursue a well considered “Eurasian Heartland” policy in the context of these developments.