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  • India's Internal Security Situation: Present Realities and Future Pathways

    India's Internal Security Situation: Present Realities and Future Pathways

    The Monograph deals with the internal security situation in India. It focuses on the Naxal conflict, the Northeastern ethnic armed insurgencies, and terrorism for a detailed study.


    Women in Maoist Ranks

    Women join as fighters and participate in raids and attacks on police. The military training they receive is as rigorous and strenuous as their male counterparts.

    August 20, 2013

    Maoist Movement in India: An Overview

    The paper sketches the trajectory of the Maoist movement in India, keeping in view the CPI (Maoist)’s history (including organisation and proliferation), ideology, strategy and tactics.

    August 06, 2013

    Maoists Link in Odisha: Case of the Chasi Mulia Adivasi Sangh

    The Chasi Mulia Adivasi Sangh (CMAS), an association of peasants, bonded labours and the tribal, is a classic case of a popular movement being hijacked by the Maoists to get their foothold in Koraput, Malkanagiri and Rayagada districts of Odisha.

    August 05, 2013

    Amit Rathee asked: What is the difference between Left Wing Extremism, Naxalism and Maoism in the Indian context?

    P.V. Ramana replies: Naxalism and Left-Wing Extremism are used interchangeably.

    On March 2, 1967, Naxalites, as they are generically known in India, who were then members of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), led a tribal peasant uprising in Naxalbari village, Siliguri sub-division, Darjeeling district, West Bengal. Since then, all those who subscribed to the idea of an armed over-throw of the state have been generically referred to as Naxalites, the term having its origins in Naxalbari village.

    On the other hand, the term Maoists refers exclusively to cadres and leaders of the Communist Party of India (Maoist). All Maoists are Naxalites, but all Naxalites are not Maoists.
    Posted on August 01, 2013

    Amit Rathee asked: Considering the fact that arms of foreign origin were used in recent Naxal attacks, what is the current state of arms trafficking in India? What specific measures are being taken in this regard?

    Vivek Chadha replies: The terrorist and insurgent groups operating in India get arms and ammunition essentially from two sources. In the first instance, weapons are moved from across the border. These can be pushed in as a result of state sponsorship, as seen in the case of Pakistan in J&K. It could also be smuggled along with drugs and fake currency as composite loads, as is common along the borders of Punjab and Rajasthan. Finally, it is trafficked from countries like Bangladesh, Myanmar and Nepal for profit. This is a major source of weapons for insurgent groups in the Northeast. Most of these weapons are of Chinese origin and reach the clandestine Southeast Asian arms markets. These are then bid for and bought with the aim of trafficking. The Naxals can potentially procure these weapons from groups in the Northeast, given their comfortable financial position.

    The second source is indigenous. It needs to be reinforced that most weapons used by the Naxals are of Indian origin and are snatched and looted from the police and central police organisations. Given the large scale of looting that has been in progress, there has not been a very critical need for weapons from outside for the Naxals.

    One of the steps initiated for reducing arms trafficking is the establishment of a border fence, which has brought down incidents of smuggling. The deployment of border forces has also been augmented and made more dynamic to improve anti-smuggling measures. The positioning of electronic surveillance devices has helped in keeping an eye on the borders. Improvement in scanning of people and vehicles has also taken place, which has helped reduce trafficking. However, having said this, there is a lot more that needs to be done to stop trafficking of arms, especially in areas which have difficult ground conditions or where borders are porous, as in the case of Nepal.

    Meeting the Maoist Challenge

    A well-deliberated and finely calibrated response strategy with matching operational doctrines is essential to deal with the Maoist challenge.

    June 03, 2013

    Chaitanya Mungi asked: What are the steps taken by the government to tackle Naxalism or to end it?

    Reply: Refer to the text of lecture by former Home Secretary, Mr. G.K. Pillai, on “Left-Wing Extremism in India” at IDSA on March 5, 2010

    Also, refer to the following IDSA publications:

    Measures to Deal with Left-Wing Extremism/Naxalism
    By P. V. Ramana, IDSA Occasional Paper No. 20, 2011

    Rockets in Maoist Arsenal

    Rockets in the Maoist arsenal may seem, presently, to have nuisance value. However, the possibility of the Maoists acquiring greater capability to fire the rockets with accuracy cannot be ruled out. Many strategic and static locations would come under threat with disastrous consequences.

    May 10, 2013

    Nishant Turan asked: How do Naxalites financially sustain their movement? What are their sources of funding?

    Vivek Chadha replies: Financing of terrorism usually fits into three categories. The first is state sponsored, wherein an external state sponsors and funds terrorism to facilitate the achievement of its strategic aims. This is essentially the case in J&K. The second is globalisation of terror finance, where a group raises funds employing the power of modern day inter-connectivity which links the financial systems of the world. It makes funds raised in Europe as convenient and accessible as those raised locally. The LTTE exploited this mechanism in the past. The third category is privatisation of terror finance. In this case, a group raises funds locally and essentially on its own. The Naxalites fall in the third category, as do most insurgent groups in the Northeast.

    The Naxalites are known to have a very elaborate taxation system, wherein every produce in the area is taxed, from tendu leaves to agricultural produce. They also resort to extortion from vehicles, businesses and households. Every type of vehicle has a fixed rate, which is systematically collected in the region. A very large percentage of their income also comes from extortion of large business houses which have their business interests in the region. These could vary from mining companies to manufacturing units. Reports have indicated that illegal mining carried out by locals is also taxed. There are also reports, though yet to be verified, regarding raising of funds through taxation of opium farms. The extent and scale is still a matter of speculation, however, given the inaccessibility of the area, it does pose a serious threat to the state agencies. The funds collected are sent to the Central Committee, with a small percentage allocated for the operational and administrative support of the local cadres