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  • Türkiye’s Foreign Policy Under The AKP: Implications and Challenges for India

    Pentagon Press
    ISBN 9788195189427
    Price: ₹ 995/-
    Purchase Download E-copy

    About The Book

    During the first two decades of the twenty-first century, besides the structural factors namely geography, history, politics, international system and the world order, five conjunctural factors dominated Turkish foreign policy behaviour and conduct. These include the Strategic Depth (Stratejik Derinlik) doctrine with ‘zero-problem’ with neighbours embedded in it followed by the Blue Homeland (Mavi Vatan) doctrine focused on enhancing Türkiye’s maritime presence in its immediate neighbourhood and the periphery. Thirdly, and arguably the most important, is the personality of Recep Tayyip Erdogan who as a dominating figure in contemporary Turkish politics has shaped not only the political discourse but foreign policy praxis. Erdogan’s personalised style of interventions has undoubtedly had a profound impact on Ankara’s interactions and engagements with the wider world. Finally, pan-Islamism and neo-Ottomanism are two important drivers in Turkish foreign policy and were visible notably in the Middle East and North Africa region and came into prominence in the wake of the Arab Spring uprisings. In this context, it is pertinent to ask what are Turkish foreign policy ambitions and how do these impact India? Given that Ankara has expanded its presence, or at least is striving to expand it, in the geographically contiguous Southwest Asia region that connects India to the Middle East, the question how Indian foreign policy should view Türkiye becomes even more important. The bilateral challenges between India and Türkiye make it even more pertinent for Indian scholars and policymakers to take a deep and hard look at Türkiye’s foreign policy doctrines and praxis. This book is an attempt in that direction. It systematically analyses the structural and conjunctural factors in Turkish foreign policy and notes that Türkiye’s foreign policy is embedded in a glorified identification of the past, both Ottoman and Kemalist, and in its geographical location as a multi-regional actor. However, the foreign policy ambitions are limited by Türkiye’s economic performance and political sliding. From an Indian viewpoint, the book identifies Pakistan as a limiting factor so far as the bilateral relations are concerned and recommends that New Delhi should use economic leverage and diplomacy to de-hyphenate the Pakistan factor.

    About The Author

    Md. Muddassir Quamar is Associate Professor at the Centre for West Asian Studies, School of International Studies in Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi. Until March 2023, he was Associate Fellow at the Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (MP-IDSA), New Delhi. Dr. Quamar specialises in Middle East strategic affairs, political Islam, and India’s relations with the region. Among other issues he is interested in society, politics and foreign policy of Saudi Arabia and Türkiye. Dr. Quamar has authored and edited several books, published research articles in reputed academic journals and contributed chapters in edited volumes on contemporary developments in the Middle East. He serves as Associate Editor of the Contemporary Review of the Middle East (Sage, India) and served as Book Review Editor of Strategic Analysis between July 2018 and March 2023. In 2014-15, he was a Visiting Fellow at the King Faisal Centre for Research and Islamic Studies in Riyadh.



    1. Introduction

      Foreign Policy Priorities

      Türkiye in the Middle East and South Asia

      Implications for India

      Definition, Rationale and Structure
    2. The Glorious Past: Ottoman and Kemalist Consciousness The Ottoman Era

      Legal Frameworks

      Political Structures

      Economic and Trade Links

      Society and Culture

      War and Peace

      End of the Empire
    3. The Kemalist Era

      Politics and Foreign Policy

      Economic and Social Issues

      Türkiye and World War II

    4. Discovering the Self in a Bipolar and a Unipolar World Foreign Policy during the Cold War


      External Relations

      Post-Cold War Recalibration

      Internal Political Churnings

      Impact of the External Environment

      Adjusting to Global Politics

      Middle Power Aspirations

    5. Breaking the Mould: Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century

      Domestic Transitions

      Determinants of Foreign Policy under the AKP

      Strategic Depth

      The Blue Homeland

      Erdogan’s Personality



      External Relations

      Relationship with Traditional Partners

      Relations with other Global Powers

      Neighbourhood and Beyond


      Strategic Overreach: Türkiye and MENA

      Incentives for a Change in Approach

      Economic Imperatives

      Political Aspirations

      Systemic and Regional Factors

      Improvements in Ties, 2002–10




      The GCC States


      Israel and Palestinians

      Jordan, Lebanon and the Maghreb Countries

      Arab Spring and Strategic Overreach

      Intervention in Syria

      Confrontation with Egypt

      Involvement in Tunisia

      Interference in Libya

      Türkiye in Iraq

      Challenging Saudi Arabia and Competition with the UAE

      Partnership with Qatar

      Problems with Iran and Israel

      Economic Crisis and Regional Reconciliations

    6. Turkish Foreign Policy and Implications for India

      Indo–Turkish Relations

      Efforts to Improve Political Contacts

      Hope for Improved Relations

      Derailment and Heightened Tensions

      Commercial Ties

      Türkiye–Pakistan Relations

      Political Convergence

      Islamic Solidarity

      Geopolitical Stirrings

      Commercial Relations

      Security and Defence Cooperation

      The Turkish Challenge for India

      Bilateral Issues: The Pakistan Factor and Kashmir

      Regional and Systemic Challenges

      Policy Recommendations for India