Karnika Jain

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  • Mistakes on Repeat Mode: Pakistan’s Civil–Military Debacle

    The military has been an integral part of Pakistan’s survival since the formation of that nation state. The idea of the country was based on a united Islamic religion, but series of events dampened the nation’s integrity. In the absence of robust political institutions to promote democracy, the bureaucratic and military apparatus made inroads into polity and expanded their role as dominant powerful elite in the initial years after independence.

    October–December 2021