International Relations

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  • Suchak Patel asked: What are the similarities and differences between a revisionist and a rogue state?

    Adil Rasheed replies: Theorists of International Relations, mainly exponents of the power transition theory, often divide countries into ‘status quo’ and ‘revisionist powers’. The so-called ‘status quo states’ refer to countries that accept the existing global order, while ‘revisionist states’ are dissatisfied with the existing international system and their place in it.

    Vineet Ravindran asked: What is the ‘Asian Century’? Is the American ‘Pivot to Asia’ and the friction in India–China relations a challenge to the concept of the Asian Century?

    Prashant Kumar Singh replies: The idea of the ‘Asian Century’ argues that the 21st century international order is going to be defined by Asia’s pre-eminence, the way the US pre-eminence defined the international order in the 20th century and Europe in the 19th century. It is also seen as Asian countries’ mutual rediscovery in terms of reconnection and reintegration. It seeks to repair artificial divisions in the Asian social, economic and cultural space that colonial interventions created.

    Vineet Ravindran asked: Why does the 'Western narrative' dominate the global information/media landscape? What tools does it employ and how does it impact global events? How can the non-Western world balance it?

    Uttam Kumar Sinha replies: In the last three decades, increasing globalisation, development of capitalism, and deregulation policies have radically transformed the mass media, which includes international news broadcasts, television, film, and music. What used to be relatively national in scope has now become a competitive catchment of global audiences.

    Renu Gaur asked: IR theorists differentiate between 'alliance' and 'strategic partnership'. What is the difference and which one characterises the QUAD?

    Rajeesh Kumar replies: 'Alliance' and 'strategic partnership' are two frequently used phrases in International Relations (IR). An alliance is an arrangement between two or more states to work together on mutual security issues. It can be formal or informal. Nonetheless, in an alliance, states usually are treaty-bound to assist each other in case of a threat or attack against any member.

    Vineet Ravindran asked: Is the US containment of China actually a means to restore the American hegemony? Does the US still follow the Wolfowitz Doctrine?

    Prashant Kumar Singh replies: The so-called Wolfowitz Doctrine was a controversial “Defense Planning Guidance” prepared in 1992 under the supervision of then US Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Paul Wolfowitz.

    Shashank Mittal asked: How can India's Arctic Policy be analysed from an International Relations theory perspective?

    Non-Traditional Security Centre replies: India published its first Arctic Policy document on 17 March 2022. The document highlights India’s near and long-term national objectives for the Arctic. From a theoretical perspective, it can be argued that India’s Arctic Policy calls for advancing ‘science diplomacy’ through which it seeks to strengthen and advance its existing cooperation with all the Arctic states.

    Sanskriti asked: How will the Russia–Ukraine crisis affect the multipolarity of the world order and India's role in it?

    Ashok Kumar Behuria replies: The Russia–Ukraine crisis does not necessarily negate the concept of multipolarity as much as perceived bipolarity because of ongoing competition between the United States (US) and China for global influence, if not leadership. However, it has certainly shattered the hopes of multipolarity as an essential condition for peace and prosperity in the world.

    Rahul P. Singh asked: How can the Chinese reluctance to solve the boundary dispute be explained from a neorealist perspective?

    Prashant Kumar Singh replies: The essence of the neorealist perspective in international relations is that the structure of the international system is anarchic and that the states are "unitary rational actors existing in a ‘self-help’ system". A “self-help” system means that “each state must fend for itself”.

    Abhishek Singh asked: Is the Indian foreign policy being increasingly shaped by the neoliberal outlook?

    Ashok Kumar Behuria replies: The term 'neoliberalism' has an economic refrain. It advocates a free market, laissez-faire economy. In international relations, neoliberal institutionalism has a slightly modified tenor that lays emphasis on economic interdependence which has been a marked feature of international politics in the post-Cold War period. Such interdependence leads to inter-connectedness and linkage that ensures peace and reduces the probability of conflict between states.

    Prakrut Chauhan asked: What is the basic difference between collective defence and collective security?

    Kishore Kumar Khera replies: Defence is a term used for actions or set of actions undertaken by an individual, system, entity, organisation or a state to mitigate damage from an attack or a possible attack. It normally but not necessarily relates to actions against physical aggression. Nowadays virtual dimension too is added in the overarching definition of defence.

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